Playwright is an open-source framework that provides a convenient and comprehensive solution for automating the testing of web applications. Its primary objective is to streamline the testing process by offering a range of features and capabilities.
What is Playwright?
What makes Playwright Automation a preferred choice?
Playwright Automation offers several compelling reasons to opt for it as a testing automation framework. Despite being relatively new on the market, it boasts numerous advantages and has gained significant popularity.
One notable advantage of Playwright is its extensive language support. It eliminates the language barrier by providing support for multiple programming languages. This feature enables developers to seamlessly transition from other frameworks, like Selenium, to Playwright. Whether you prefer C#, Java, Python, or other supported languages, Playwright ensures a smooth migration process.
Another significant factor that sets Playwright apart is its utilization of the DevTools protocol. By leveraging this protocol, Playwright enables the creation of powerful and stable automated tests. It goes beyond relying on intermediate translation layers and instead directly interacts with the browser. This direct control allows for the simulation of more realistic and meaningful user scenarios, enhancing the accuracy and effectiveness of the tests.
Advantages of Playwright Automation:
Playwright, driven by active contributors, continuously releases new features on a monthly basis. The following advantages highlight its capabilities:
- Easy Setup and Configuration: Setting up Playwright as a test automation framework is hassle-free, requiring minimal time for installation. The steps may vary depending on the programming language used with Playwright.
- Multi-Browser Support: Playwright provides comprehensive support for a range of browsers, including the Chromium family (Chrome, Edge), Webkit (Safari), and Firefox.
- Parallel Browser Testing: Playwright allows for the execution of tests simultaneously through its Browser Context feature, enabling parallel testing with multiple browsers. This capability proves valuable when testing multiple web pages concurrently, significantly scaling up the testing process.
LambdaTest is a cloud-based digital experience testing platform that empowers you to conduct Playwright testing on a broader scale through its automated cross-browser testing capabilities across a vast range of 3000+ browsers. This scalability in test execution enhances your test coverage and ultimately improves the quality of your product.
- Support for Multiple Tabs/Browser Windows: Playwright efficiently supports scenarios involving multiple tabs and browser windows. It accommodates different types of test cases that require verification across multiple windows, including launching new windows and returning to parent windows.
- CI/CD Integration Support: Playwright offers seamless integration with continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) processes. It provides Docker images for some language bindings, further streamlining the integration process.
To proceed with the example, we will utilize the Playwright Test Runner, specifically designed to cater to end-to-end testing requirements. It offers all the functionalities you would typically expect from a regular test runner.
It’s important to note that the Playwright Test Runner is relatively new, as indicated in the official documentation.
If preferred, you have the flexibility to choose other test runners like Jest, AVA, or Mocha.
Here’s what you’ll need to get started:
- Access to a demo site that you wish to test.
- A Node.js environment is installed on your system.
- Playwright and Playwright Test Runner libraries are installed in your Node.js environment.
Create a New Test Project
- Sign up or sign in to access your test management account.
- Click the “Create” button in the upper right corner of the window to create a new test project.
- Select the type of project and enter its name.
Import Automated Tests
- In the new test project, click on the appropriate menu item in the upper right corner of the window to import automated tests.
- Select your preferred operating system (Mac/Linux/Windows) and replicate the command provided, including the API key. Execute this command at the command prompt (CMD) to import the tests from the source code into the test management system.
- Monitor the console as the test management importer accurately analyzes the code and displays the number of tests found in the test framework.
- Go back to your project and check the number of tests found. You can click on a specific test to view the steps it contains.
- Tests with differences will be assigned the “Out of Sync” status, enabling you to make timely decisions to rectify any incorrect changes.
Optional: Import Autotests and Create Manual Tests
- After creating a new project, select the “Create Suite” menu item and then “Add new test”.
- You can now run manual test cases, mark them as passed or failed, and add additional information such as text, screenshots, etc.
- This allows you to generate comprehensive reports of manual and automated test results in one place.
Organize Your Playwright Tests Efficiently
- When a project has a large number of tests, it becomes relevant to structure them using tags and a tagging system.
- You have the ability to sort, reorder, filter, and find the right test case easily. For more details on how to speed up QA efficiency, follow the link provided.
Creating a Report in Playwright
- To obtain a detailed report of the test results, you need to install the testomat.io Reporter in your repository.
One of the standout features of Playwright is the Trace Viewer which allows you to not only view but also interact with the trace file generated during your test execution.
Configuring the Trace in Playwright: To utilize the Trace Viewer, you’ll need to make some modifications to the playwright.config.ts file. The file provides several options for configuring the trace functionality, as outlined below:
- ‘off’: Disables the recording of a trace altogether.
- ‘on’: Generates a trace file for each test execution.
- ‘retain-on-failure’: Records a trace file for each test but removes it from successful test runs, retaining it only for failed tests.
- ‘on-first-retry’: Captures a trace file only when retrying a test for the first time.
By leveraging this configuration, you can harness the power of the Trace Viewer to thoroughly analyze and investigate the execution details of your tests.
Rerunning the Report:
If you currently have the HTML report open, you can close it by pressing Ctrl+C. Now, we’ll create a new report that includes the trace file by following these steps:
Run the command: npx playwright show-report
Similar to before, the HTML report will open, displaying a summary of your test.
However, this time you’ll notice a new section called “Trace” at the bottom of the report. It includes an image and a link to your trace file.
Clicking on the trace link will open a new browser window dedicated to viewing your test’s trace. This window hosts a locally hosted Progressive Web App (PWA) where you can interact with and explore the trace file.
Viewing the Trace File:
Once you’ve clicked on the trace link, you’ll be presented with a browser window dedicated to viewing the trace for your test. The window offers various features and functionalities, as described below:
Timeline: Located at the top, the timeline allows you to scroll through and observe different states of your page based on the actions performed. Each action is represented by a different color, such as green for clicks and red for selections.
Actions and Metadata: Positioned on the left-hand side, this section displays each action of your test along with relevant metadata. Clicking on an action will provide details about its outcome in the middle section.
Middle Section: This area presents a DOM snapshot of your webpage, highlighting the action that was performed. The “Before” tab shows the state of the page prior to the action, while the “After” tab displays the page after the action has been executed.
Right-Hand Side: On the right side, you’ll find detailed information related to the selected action. This includes the selector used, whether it’s in strict mode, console logs (if any), network requests, and the test’s source code.
By utilizing the features of the trace viewer, you can thoroughly analyze the actions, outcomes, and states of your test, empowering you to debug and optimize your testing process effectively.
Inspecting the DOM Snapshot:
One fascinating aspect of the trace viewer is that the snapshot of your website displayed in the middle section is a fully interactive DOM snapshot. This means you can interact with it just like you would with a live website. The following interactive features are available:
Scrolling: You can scroll within the DOM snapshot to explore different sections of the webpage.
User Events: It is possible to simulate user events such as clicks and interactions within the DOM snapshot. This allows you to observe the corresponding changes and behavior of the webpage.
These capabilities provide a precious and convenient way to inspect and interact with the DOM snapshot, offering a comprehensive understanding of your website’s behavior during the test execution.
- Playwright does not provide support for legacy Microsoft Edge or Internet Explorer 11 (IE11). However, it fully supports the new Microsoft Edge, which is based on the Chromium web platform.
- At present, Playwright does not offer API bindings for Java or Ruby. Nevertheless, it is designed to be adaptable to bindings for any programming language, so this limitation is temporary.
- For testing mobile devices, Playwright utilizes desktop browsers to simulate the behavior of mobile devices. If you prefer to conduct tests on actual mobile devices, you can express your interest and support by upvoting this issue.
Playwright, a relatively recent testing framework, has rapidly gained widespread popularity. This framework consistently receives updates and enhancements, driven by valuable user feedback. When comparing the download numbers of Playwright to those of longer-established frameworks in the market, it becomes evident that Playwright has achieved remarkable popularity.
To address the difficulties associated with utilizing Playwright or any testing framework, a viable solution is to employ a cloud-based testing platform such as LambdaTest. This platform is designed to streamline the process of automating and testing web applications. By leveraging LambdaTest, you can effectively overcome the challenges associated with utilizing Playwright or other testing frameworks.